2 - The International Standard ISO 2384 - Part Two
Having completed the part of standard 2384 concerning the essential elements in translations, the rest of the standard is mostly about presentation.RESPECTING THE STRUCTURE OF THE ORIGINAL
Paragraphs, their numbering if present (the standard in this clause obviously refers to technical texts and/or contracts etc.) and subdivisions of the original text into clauses must be respected.
Any differences in content between the original document and the translation must be mentioned, specifying whether the differences are omissions, corrections, abridgements or additions to parts of the text, to the index or to the bibliography. NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
If the titles of the works or articles are translated, it is necessary for the title in the original language to follow in brackets. The notes and translator's comments can be given either at the foot of the page or appended at the end of the text, accompanied by the words «Translator's Note» or a sentence to that effect in the language of the translation.
As far as bibliography is concerned, each country has drawn up rules regulating the way in which it must be compiled. These rules will be examined further on in the course. FORMULAE, EQUATIONS, SYMBOLS, UNITS
Formulae, equations, symbols and units are preferably not translated. Any modification should be mentioned in a translator's note.
If the units are converted, the value of the original units should be given in brackets. FIGURES, LEGENDS, TITLES of FIGURES and TABLES
It is preferable to present figures and tables exactly in the same position in which they appear in the original text. If for any technical reason the figure has to be moved, a reference should be given at the appropriate place in the text.
Titles, legends or other matter should be translated in full.
If figures or tables are reproduced directly from the original, it is necessary to translate any text or notes that go with them. TRANSLITERATION
When the translation is in a different script (alphabet) from the original text, names of authors and non-translated words should be transliterated in compliance with the appropriate International standard regarding that country. For example, the international standard ISO 233 for Arabic, standard ISO 9 for the Cyrillic alphabet and ISO 259 for the Hebrew alphabet. We will be dealing with transliteration tables further on in the course. Standards for transliteration are necessary in order to create a correspondence between the signs/symbols from one language to another. Transcription on the other hand, is limited to reproducing the pronunciation commonly used, in a comprehensible way for the speaker of the translated language. NAMES and SYMBOLS of ORGANIZATIONS
When the organization has only one official name, it is possible to translate the name and put it in brackets the first time it appears in a text. As far as bibliographical references are concerned, the names of the organizations are to be given in the original language. The names of organizations should be given without any form of translation, unless these organizations have official names in different languages (for example The European Union or the World Health Organization). ABBREVIATIONS
The international standards ISO 4 and 832 establish a set of rules as regards abbreviations. We will discuss these rules further on in the course. The international standard ISO 2384 states that, if abbreviations are used in the text, their equivalents in the language of the translation should be given. If there is no equivalent, the abbreviation should be fully explained at its first occurrence. The international standards ISO 4 and 832 establish a set of rules as regards abbreviations. We will discuss these rules further on in the course. The international standard ISO 2384 states that, if abbreviations are used in the text, their equivalents in the language of the translation should be given. If there is no equivalent, the abbreviation should be fully explained at its first occurrence. TERMINOLOGY
In certain translations specific terminology belonging to a particular subject or profession is used. In these cases, it is necessary for the translator to choose the appropriate homologous in the language of the translation. However, if new terminology related to innovative concepts is used, it is recommended that the original term should follow the translation of such terms in brackets. IDENTIFICATION of AUTHORS
Honorific titles such as «Member of the Academy of Sciences» must be translated; the expressions relative to the author's part in the preparation of a document (such as the chief editor, new edition by...) must also always be translated. The identification of the professional status or qualification of an author, such as jr. for Junior, or sr. for Senior, or Prof. for Professor, must be given in the in the original language unless sanctioned by usage, in which case they must be translated.
As we have already said in the unit concerning the essential and complementary elements in a translation, in the case of a retranslation it is essential to refer to the intermediate translation and to the original publication. GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES
Some geographical names have versions in different languages (London, Londres, Londra, Londen, for example) while others do not have used versions: in this case they must not be translated but left in their original language. In bibliographical references, geographical names are to be given in the original language or transliterated. DATES
The date of the original publication must be shown in the translation. If the original publication uses a different calendar (for example the Julian calendar, the Jewish calendar, the Arabic or Japanese calendars),the corresponding year in the calendar of the culture of the translation must be given. TRANSLATION of PERIODICALS
With the exception of very few cases, most of all related to multilingual publications, the title of periodicals must be kept in their original language and not translated. The translation is possible only if authorized by the publisher.
In the translation it is also essential to show the volume, issue and corresponding parts of the original issue. The year of publication of the original must appear before the year of publication of the translation. The pagination of the translation must be followed by the pagination of the original. NAME OF THE TRANSLATOR
One of the essential elements in identifying a translation is by always showing the name of the translator, (in compliance with the advice given by the International Federation of Translators and Recommendation n. 5 adopted by UNESCO) unless the translation is a patent or a similar document. AUTHORITY TO PUBLISH TRANSLATIONS
The heading of the translation should carry the reference to the original document, and a statement authorizing the publication with or without exclusive rights of the translation.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
Documentation - Presentation of translations, Genève, © 1977.